*                                                                         *
*                                                                         *
*      Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy        *
*                  in the Astronomische Gesellschaft                      *
*                                                                         *
*                     Number 7,  December 2, 1994                         *
*                                                                         *
*                           A translation of                              *
*                                                                         *
*                        Nr. 7,  3. November 1994                         *
*                                                                         *
*          Edited by: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick <>          *
*                                                                         *
*      Translated by: Mr. Donald Bellunduno <76450.1741@CompuServe.COM>   *
*                                                                         *


Mathias Iven: Research Project "3 men named Foerster"

Alina Eremeeva: History of Astronomy Conference at Pulkovo Observatory

Conference Calendar 1994-96

Museums and Exhibits


New books

Expressions of thanks


Addendum by the translator: 
New astronomical books in review in North America
Space Anniversaries (from the SPACE CALENDAR)


Research Project: "3 men named Foerster"

By Mathias Iven, Potsdam

A project, conducted by the URANIA-Association "Wilhelm Foerster" in 
Potsdam, and in cooperation with the Ministry for Science, Research and 
Culture in the principalities of Brandenburg, has been going on since 
August 1994. It is focusing on the life, research, and works of three 
gentlemen/astronomers named Foerster: Wilhelm Foerster, Friedrich Wilhelm 
Foerster, and Karl Foerster.
The Astronomer Wilhelm Foerster (1832-1921), father of Karl and Friedrich
Wilhelm, was, in addition to his scientific contributions (among other 
things, initiator of the Babelsberg Observatory as well as the institutes 
on top of the "Telegrafenberg" in Potsdam) also in 1888 Co-Founder of the 
"Urania" Association for the advancement of science, which is still in 
operation today.

Karl Foerster (1874-1970) became world-reknown as "Foerster of Shrubs". 
In 1910/11 in his only outside nursery in back of his country house in 
Bornim he cultivated Rittersporn and Phlox. His sinking and ever-blooming 
garden, which he built directly next to the house, is seen by most as being 
of exemplary, and impeccable taste.    
In the shadow of his brothers and his father, Friedrich Wilhelm Foerster 
(1869-1966) was certainly unjustly less noticed than any of the 
afore-mentioned, even though Robert Musil and Franz Kafka were mentioned in 
his book "Jugendlehre", which came out in 1906. This pedagogical and 
educational reformer was imbitterly attacked through the hate of the 
Right-Wing Radicals. In 1922, he moved his place of residence to 
Switzerland, mainly because he was to have been the second murder by 
hanging victim after Walter Rathenau.   

Special attention in this research project has been given to the 
extraordinary cooperation of all three personalities, free from classical 
multi-generational conflicts. This originated but is not entirely 
explainable from a familial view-point. For this reason, one of the main 
and far reaching goals of the project is to erect a central 
research-institute in which archival, and both primary and secondary 
literature of the "Foerster-Trio" can be located. Indeed, it will be a 
place where extended and comprehensive documentation on every single 
achievement of the Foerster Family can be found.     

From these goals the first steps of the project have begun, for example: 
comprehensive inquiries into the lives and works of the three personalities 
in question; and in addition to researching the material at hand, also 
exploring and researching the works which, up until today, have not been 
explored or read and catalogued (mainly on Wilhelm and Friedrich Wilhelm 
Foerster) on the Foerster Family. It has also been planned to install a 
bibliographical catalogue of letters (primary and secondary literature) and 
catalogue cards in order to further the process for others to be able to 
continually research the life and works of the Foerster Family.   

Early research results should be presented in a conference in Potsdam from 
the 16 to the 19 March, 1995. The presentations and parts of the 
discussions, as well as other texts already submitted up to that point, 
will eventually be published in a conference-edition. 

During the first day of the conference the "Wilhelm Foerster Prize" which 
was established by the Urania Association "Wilhelm Foerster" and through 
the Ministry for Science, Research and Culture in the principalities of  
Brandenburg, will be awarded. In addition to the presentations and 
discussions, there will also be viewings and tours in the garden of Karl 
Foerster, in the Wilhelm Foerster Observatory (Berlin), on the Potsdam 
"Telegrafenberg" (astrophysical and geophysical institutes), and in the 
Babelsberg Observatory are also included in the program.  
Whoever is interested in this project, or whoever needs help in 
interpreting or finding secondary literature or recently founded locations 
of archives containing information on the Foerster Family, or can 
contribute any suggestions and perhaps also take part in the conference as 
a visiting guest, please contact the URANIA Association "Wilhelm Foerster"
Potsdam, Brandenburger Str. 38, 14467 Potsdam, Telephone # (0331) 29 17 41,
Fax (0331) 29 36 83.


History of Astronomy Conference at Pulkovo Observatory

By Alina Eremeeva, Moscow

The coming year 1995 is the year of the 50th anniversary of the end of the
World War II. The Euro-Asian Astronomical Society plans to hold a
scientific memorial conference dedicated to this date "Astronomers,
Astronomy and the World War II". The conference is to be held in Pulkovo,
on April 24-28, 1995. Prof.V.Abalakin has agreed to become the Chairman of
the Scientific Organizing Committee.

The preliminary list of topics is as follows:

1. Astronomy in the pre-war years
2. Astronomers at the front and the rear
3. Astronomy working for the front
4. Fate of astronomical centers at the front and the rear
5. Scientific and technological progress in astronomy on base of
   military technology
6. Discoveries and inventions by astronomers during the war years
7. Round table: Astronomy in a world without world wars

We would very much appreciate any help to find people who could contribute
to the conference with a talk or (as those who remember the World War II
events may be unable to make such a long trip) just by writing down some
reminiscences of their war experience and sending the writing as a poster
to the conference.


Alina Eremeeva
Secretary to the Conference Organizing Committee
E-mail: or

Victor K. Abalakin

Robert A. McCutcheon
Phone : (301) 497-2743


Conference Calender 1994-96

Attention! Calendar correction:
10.-15. November, Berlin (Germany)
International Congress "Galileo Galilei"
(Istituto Italiano di Cultura, c/o Italian General Consulate,
Hiroshima Str. 1, D-10785 Berlin, Tel. 0049-30-2617875, Fax 2640941)

24.-25. November, Gent (Belgium)
The George Sarton Lectures of the University of Gent will include
G.L'E.Turner on "Gerard Mercator and the Louvain Workshops"

25. November, Strasbourg (France)
La dix-huitieme reunion "Astronomie et Sciences Humaines"
Salle Leon XIII au FEC, place Saint Etienne, 10 h
(G.Jasniewicz, Observatoire Astronomique, 11 rue de l'Universite,
F-67000 Strasbourg, France, Tel. (33) 88 35 82 18

26. November, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Symposium on navigational instruments
(Scheepvaartmuseum, Kattenburgerplein 1, 1018 KK Amsterdam, The

27. November, Paris (France)
5eme Salon des Antiques Scientifiques
open 10:00 to 19:00, Grande Bouveche, 71 rue de Paris, 91400 Orsay,
France, admission free 
(Details: Comite Municipal des fetes, BP 47-91401 Orsay cedex, France,
tel: (1) 69 82 89 27)

10. December, Potsdam (Germany)
Colloquium 70 years of the Sun Observatory Einstein-Tower
Presentations by W.Mattig, K.Hentschel.
(Dr. J.Staude, Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam, Telegrafenberg,
D-14473 Potsdam, Germany, Tel. (0331) 288 2300, Fax 288 2310)

16. December, Potsdam (Germany)
Honorary Colloquium to the 80th Birthday of Prof Dr Friedrich Wilhelm 
Lectures by L.Oetken and H.H.Voigt
(Dr. J.Staude, see above)

16-19 March, Potsdam (Germany)
Scientific Conference "The 3 Foersters" (see above)

Attention! Conference correction:
20-24 March, Berlin (Germany)
VIth Physics/History conference on the theme "150 years of German Physical 
Society" and international physics historical conference on the "Emergence 
of Modern Physics" 
(Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, FSP Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Jaegerstr. 10/11, 
D-10117 Berlin, Tel. (030) 20192-164/152, Fax (030) 20192-154/162)

20-24 March, Hamburg (Germany)
Conference of the German Geophysical Society.
(Lectures on the History of Geophysics/Geosciences are planned)
In order to register for the lectures (with synopsis) up until the 
1. December 1994, please contact:
Prof. Makris, Institute for Geophysics, Bundesstr. 55, 20146 Hamburg,
Tel. (040) 4123-3969  
Copy please to: Prof. Dr. G.Buntebahrt, Institute for Geophysics of the TU,
Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany

24-28 April, St.Petersburg/Pulkovo (Russia)
Conference "Astronomers, Astronomy and World War II" (see above)

7 May, London (England)
The 18th International Antique Scientific & Medical Instrument Fair
Portman Hotel, Portman Square, London W1, 10:00 - 16:30. 
(Details: Peter Delehar 081-866 8659)

29 October, London (England)
The 19th International Antique Scientific & Medical Instrument Fair
Portman Hotel, Portman Square, London W1. 
(Details: 081-866 8659)

5-6 June, Amsterdam and Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Second International Congress for Maritime History
(Mrs. Drs. C. Reinders Folmer, P.O. Box 102, 2350 AC Leiderdorp, The
Netherlands, Tel: (31) 7189 5382)


Museums and Exhibits

London (England)
The exhibition "Instruments of Discovery" which was being planned by the
Scientific Instrument Society has been cancelled due to financial reasons.

Salzburg (Austria)
26 July - 13 November 1994
Exhibit "Time and Measures. Sun-dials and scientific devices."
On display will include clocks, sun-dials, globes, distance-measuring 
instruments, telescopes, astrolabia, Armillarspheres, precision instruments 
by Georg Friedrich Brander, measuring instruments from mountain works, 
technical supplies for war-purposes, portraits, and graphics. In the center 
of the collection stand the clocks, and sun-dials from the collection of 
the Arch-Bishop of Salzburg Leopold Anton Freiherr von Firmian (1727-1744). 
Specifically, a 1 meter high astronomical table-clock.
Salzburger Museum Carolino Augusteum, Museumsplatz 1, A-5020 Salzburg,
Tel. (0662) 8411-34/37
Daily 9am - 5pm, Tuesday 9am -8pm, Monday closed
Catalogue and Essay-edition: look up section "New books", P.Husty and "Die 
Uhren ..." ("The clocks ...")

Hildesheim (Germany)
17 July - 27 November 1994
Exhibit "China - a Cradle of World-Culture. 5000 years of discoveries and 
exploration". Among the sections are one devoted to astronomy presenting
among other exhibits an armillar sphere.
Roemer- and Pelizaeus-Museum
Daily (Monday also) 10 am - 6 pm, Wednesday up until 8 pm
Tel. (05121) 93690

Edinburgh (Scotland, Great Britain)
8 October - 31 December 1994
"A Heavenly Library: Treasures from the Royal Observatory's Crawford
Collection" is an exhibition to commemorate the centenary of The Royal
Observatory, Edinburgh. The Crawford Library is perhaps one of the
worlds's five foremost collections of historical astronomical texts. The
15,000 books, manuscripts and pamphlets were an outright gift by James
Ludovic Lindsay, 26th Earl of Crawford. This is the first display devoted
to treasures from this library, which are shown together with associated
scientific instruments drawn from other collections.
Royal Museum of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh
Monday to Saturday 10:00 - 17:00, Sunday 12:00 - 17:00, admission free
Catalogue: see section "New Books", Macdonald and Morrison-Low

Edinburgh (Scotland, Great Britain)
"Reaching for the Stars" is an exhibition at the Visitor Centre, the Royal
Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ staged to celebrate its
centenary. Details: 031-668 8405.

Brussels (Belgium)
November - December 1994
An exhibition to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the death of Mercator
is held at the Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique.

Duisburg (Germany)
4 September 1994 - 31 Januar 1995
Exhibit "Verfolgt, Geachtet, Universal - Gerhard Mercator - Europa und
die Welt" (Persecuted, esteemed, universal - Gerhard Mercator, - Europe and 
the world) including atlases, maps, cartographical hints, especially the 
Mercator Astrolabia, which were only found in 1992.
Kultur- und Stadthistorisches Museum (Culture and Historical City Museum), 
Johannes-Corputius-Platz 1, D-47049 Duisburg, Tel. (0203) 2 83 26 40
Closed Monday 
Catalogue: 255 Pages, DM 48,-
(Source: Der Vermessungsingenieur 45(1994)5, p. 255)

Potsdam (Germany)
10 December 1994 - ca. March 1995   
Exhibit "70 years Solar Observatory Einstein-Turm (Einstein's tower)"                                                  
Place: Kuppelgebaeude des Grossen Refraktors im Astrophysikalischen 
Observatorium (Dome of the Large Refractor in the Astrophysical 
Observatory), Telegrafenberg
(Dr. J.Staude, Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, Telegrafenberg,
D-14473 Potsdam, Tel. (0331) 288 2300, Fax 288 2310)


On the 18th of October 1993 a memorial plaque was fixed on the front of 
the main post-office in Klaipeda (former Memel in East-Prussia/Germany, 
present Lithuania) for Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander (1799-1875) with 
a special relief made after a drawing by Honeck. At this place stood the 
house of the Argelander Family. The memorial plaque has been initiated by 
the German Aennchen-von-Tharau-Association.

On the 19 March 1994 the University/Highschool Duisburg was renamed in
"Gerhard-Mercator-Universitaet-Gesamthochschule". In Duisburg on the 
grounds of the Salvator church the grave of Gerhard Mercator (1512-1594) 
can be seen, in addition, a wooden epitaph offers remembrance 
to him in the choir of the church.
(Source: Willi Weih, Gerhard Mercator zum 400. Todestag,
Vermessungsingenieur 45 (1994) 4, pp. 164f.)


News Books

Albani, Matthias: Astronomie und Schoepfungsglaube. Untersuchungen zum
astronomischen Henochbuch [Astronomy and Creation Beliefs. Examinations 
into astronomical book of Henoch]. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag 
des Erziehungsvereins, 1994. ca. 320 pp., ISBN 3-7887-1482-4, ca. DM 84,- 
(= Wiss. Monogr. z. AT u. NT, 68)

Bedini, Silvio A.: Science and instruments in seventeenth-century Italy.
Aldershot: Variorum, 1994.  Pp. 352, ISBN 0-86078-442-8, GBP 57.50
(hardback). (= Collected Studies Series, CS449) 
[On telescopes, the instruments of Galileo Galilei, optical workshops

Beller, M.; Cohen, R.pp.; Renn, Juergen (Eds.): Einstein in context.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Pp. 368, ISBN 0-521-44834-4,
GBP 30, $ 37.95 (pb)
[contains also a discussion of attempts by the American astronomer
C.E.St.John to verify the gravitational redshift-effect in solar lines]
   Review:  D.J.Raine: The Observatory 114 (1994) 1121, 179

Burnett, Charles; Yamamoto, Keiji; Yano, Michio (Ed.): Abu Ma'sar: The
abbreviation of the introduction to astrology. Together with the Medieval
Latin translation of Adelard of Bath.  Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994.  
Pp. VIII, 170, ISBN 90-04-09997-2, HFl 100.00 
(= Islamic Philosophy, Theology and Science, 15)

Buschmann, Ernst (Hrsg.): Aus Leben und Werk von Johann Jacob Baeyer 
[From the life and works of Johann Jacob Baeyer].
Frankfurt a.M.: Verlag des Instituts fuer Angewandte Geodaesie, 1994.  
186 pp. (= Nachrichten aus dem Karten- und Vermessungswesen, Reihe I, 
Heft Nr. 112)
[Distribution: Institut fuer Angewandte Geodaesie, Aussenstelle Berlin,
Stauffenbergstrasse 13, D-10785 Berlin; contains also: correspondence
with astronomers F.W.Bessel and W.Foerster, excerpts from letters by
A.v.Humboldt and Otto Struve, material about Baeyers relations with
Wilhelm Struve and P.A.Hansen]

Davidson, Norman: Sky phenomena. A guide to naked-eye observations of the
stars. Edinburgh: Floris Books, 1993. Pp. 228, ISBN 0-863-15168-X, 
GBP 12.99 (softbound)
[contains also anecdotes about the personalities and events associated
with astronomical discoveries, as well as a collection of poems from
ancient civilizations to modern times (43 pp.)]
   Review:  M.A.Hapgood: The Observatory 114 (1994) 1120, 122-123

De reizende astronoom. Nederlandse sterrenkundige expedities naar de Oost
en de West. [The travalling astronomer. Netherlands astronomical
expeditions to the east and to the west]. Leiden: Museum Boerhaave, 1993.

Die Uhren des Erzbischofs Firmian [The clocks of Arch-Bishop Firmian]. 
Salzburg: Salzburger Museum Carlino Augusteum, 1994. OeS 75.- 
(= Barockberichte, 10)
[Also, astronomical clocks and sun dials]

Felber, Hans-Joachim (Hrsg.): Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt
und Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel [Correspondence between Alexander von 
Humboldt and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel]. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1994. 
249 pp., ISBN 3-05-001915-8, Gb DM 120,- 
(= Beitraege zur Alexander-von-Humboldt-Forschung, 10)

Ferrari d'Occhieppo, Konradin: Der Stern von Bethlehem in astronomischer
Sicht. Legende oder Tatsache? [The Star of Bethlehem in astronomical
views. Legend or Fact?] Giessen: Brunnen-Verlag, 1994. 180 pp.,
ISBN 3-7655-9803-8, Pb DM 24,80 
(= TVG Stud. z. bibl. Archaeol. u. Zeitgesch., 803)

Ferrari d'Occhieppo, Konradin: Der Stern von Bethlehem. Aus der Sicht der
Astronomie beschrieben und erklaert [The Star of Bethlehem. Written and 
explained from the viewpoint of Astronomy]. Berlin: 
Ullstein-Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1994. ISBN 3-548-23550-6, Pb DM 9,90 
(= Ullstein Buecher, 23550) 

Hall, A. Rupert: All was light. An introduction to Newton's Opticks.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Pp. 252, ISBN 0-198-53985-1, 
GBP 35 (hb)
   Review:  R.V.Willstrop: The Observatory 114 (1994) 1121, 178-179

Hall, A. Rupert: Newton, his friends & his foes.  Aldershot: Variorum,
1993. Pp. 344, ISBN 0-86078-347-2, GBP 49.50 (Hardback) 
(= Collected Studies Series, CS390)
[on Newton, Grimaldi, Fabri, Hooke, More, Huygens, Leibniz]

Herrmann, Dieter B.: Ejnar Hertzsprung - Pionier der Sternforschung [Ejnar 
Hertzsprung - Pionier of Stellar Exploration].
Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994. 290 pp., 40 illus.,
ISBN 3-540-57688-6, Geb. DM 58,-

Husty, Peter: Zeit & Mass. Sonnenuhren und wissenschaftliche Geraete. Zum
250. Todesjahr des Salzburger Erzbischofs Leopold Anton Freiherr von
Firmian (1727-1744). Katalog zur 177. Sonderausstellung [Time and 
Measure. Sun dials and scientific devices. In remembrance of the 250th 
anniversary of the death of the Archbishop of Salzburg Leopold Anton 
Freiherr von Firmian (1727-1744). Catalogue to the special 177th exhibit]. 
Salzburger Museum Carlino Augusteum, 1994. 96 pp., 89 illus., OeS 200.-

[Larcher, Verena (Ed.):] Rudolf Wolfs Jugendtagebuch 1835 - 1841 
[Rudolf Wolf's diary as a youth, 1835 - 1841].
Zuerich: ETH-Bibliothek, 1994. 129 pp.  
(= Schriftenreihe der ETH-Bibliothek, 30)

Lutstorf, Heinz Theo: Professor Rudolf Wolf und seine Zeit. 1816-1893.
Nach bibliothekseigenen, teilweise nichtpublizierten Quellen dargestellt 
[Professor Rudolf Wolf and his time. 1816-1893. According to original 
library, and partly unpublished sources].
Zuerich: ETH-Bibliothek, 1993. 57 pp.  
(= Schriftenreihe der ETH-Bibliothek, 31)

Macdonald, Angus; Morrison-Low, A.D.: A heavenly library: treasures from
the Royal Observatory's Crawford Collection.  With contributions by Owen
Gingerich, Angus Macdonald, A.D. Morrison-Low and Liba C. Taub.
Edinburgh: Royal Observatory, 1994.  Pp. 72, ill., ISBN 0-902553-37-2, 
GBP 12.50 + GBP 2.00 p+p
[Copies can be ordered from: Miss Madge Maclean, Museum Shop, National
Museums of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, Great Britain]

Meinel, Christoph; Voswinckel, Peter (Eds.): Medizin, Naturwissenschaft,
Technik und Nationalsozialismus. Kontinuitaeten und Diskontinuitaeten 
[Medicine, Science, Technology and National-Socialism. Continuities and 
Stuttgart: Verlag fuer Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik,
1994. 332 pp., ISBN 3-928186-24-8, Bound DM 55,-
[Contains, among other topics: A.Hermann: Das Zeisswerk im Dritten 
Reich [Optical Manufacturers Zeiss in the Third Reich]; G.Wolfschmidt:
Sonnenphysik im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Wissenschaft oder Kriegsforschung? 
[Solar Physics in the Second World War: Science or Military research?];
B.Nagel: Die Welteislehre: Ihre Geschichte und ihre Bedeutung im "Dritten
Reich" [The World-Ice-Theory: Its History and their meaning in the 
Third Reich]; K.Hentschel und M.Renneberg: "Ausschaltung" oder 
"Verteidigung" der allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie - Interpretation einer
Kosmologen-Karriere im Nationalsozialismus ["Shut-down" or "Defense" of the 
general theory of relativity -  Interpretation of a cosmological career in 
National-Socialism; about Otto Heckmann]]

Moore, Patrick: Fireside astronomy. An anecdotal tour through the history
and lore of astronomy. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1993. Pp. XII,
212, ISBN 0-471-94202-2, GBP 9.95, $ 14.95 (pb) 
[First published in 1992]
   Review:  D.Stickland: The Observatory 114 (1994) 1121, 180

North, John D.: Fontana history of astronomy and cosmology.  Fontana
Press, 1994. Pp. xxvii, 697, ISBN 0-00-68177-6, GBP 12.99 (pb)
   Review:  A.Kinder: J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 104 (1994) 4, 192

Oestmann, Guenther: Schicksalsdeutung und Astronomie. Der Himmelsglobus
des Johannes Stoeffler von 1493. Mit Beitraegen von Elly Dekker und Peter
Schiller. Ausstellungskatalog [Meaning of destiny and astronomy. The 
celestial globe of Johannes Stoeffler of 1493. With contributions by Elly 
Dekker and Peter Schiller. Exhibit catalogue]. 
Stuttgart: Wuerttembergisches Landesmuseum, 1993. 71 pp., 
ISBN 3-929055-28-7, Pb DM 20,-

Price, Fred W.: The planet observer's handbook. Cambridge, New York,
Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Pp. xix, 410, ill., bibl.,
indexes, ISBN 0-521-44257-5
[contains some chapters on history of planet observations]

Sabra, A.I.: Optics, astronomy and logic. Studies in arabic science and
philosophy.  Aldershot: Variorum, 1994. Pp. 336, ISBN 0-86079-435-5, 
GBP 47.50 (Hardback).  (= Collected Studies Series, CS444) 

Samso, Julio: Islamic astronomy and Medieval Spain.  Aldershot: Variorum,
1994. Pp. 352, ISBN 0-86078-309-X, GBP 49.50 (Hardback).  
(= Collected Studies Series, CS428)

Schoener, Christoph: Mathematik und Astronomie an der Universitaet
Ingolstadt im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert [Mathematics and Astronomy at the 
University of Ingolstadt in the 15th and 16th centuries]. 
Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1994. 546 pp., ISBN 3-428-08118-8, Pb DM 124,- 
(= Ludovico Maximilianea Forsch., 13)

Smoller, Laura Ackerman: History, prophecy, and the stars. The christian
astrology of Pierre d'Ailly, 1350-1420. Ewing, New Jersey: Princeton
University Press, 1994. Pp. 296, ill., ISBN 0-691-08788-1, GBP 26.50, 
$ 40.00 (cloth)

Spalinger, Anthony: Revolutions in time: Studies in ancient Egyptian
calendrics.  San Antonio (TX): Van Siclen Books, 1994. ISBN 0-933175-36-1
(= Varia Aegyptiaca Supplement, 6)

Stephenson, Bruce: The music of the heavens. Kepler's harmonic astronomy.
Ewing, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1994. Pp. 296, ill., 
ISBN 0-691-03439-7, GBP 30.00, $ 45.00

Stephenson, Bruce: Kepler's physical astronomy. Ewing, New Jersey:
Princeton University Press, 1994. Pp. 218, ill., ISBN 0-691-03652-7, 
GBP 12.95, $ 18.00 (pb)

Tennant, Catherine: The Box of Stars.  London: Chatto & Windus, 1993.  
Pp. 87, boxed with 32 charts, ISBN 0-701-16009-8, GBP 14.99 (pb)
[reprint of 32 cards from 1825 with constellations visible from the
British Empire + paperback book with commentaries concentrating on
mythology and astrology]
   Review:  D.W.Hughes: The Observatory 114 (1994) 1120, 123

Tihon, Anne: Etudes d'astronomie byzantine.  Aldershot: Variorum, 1994.
Pp. 336, ISBN 0-86078-437-1, GBP 53.50 (Hardback).  
(= Collected Studies Series, CS454)

Trejo, Jesus Galindo: Arqueoastronomia en la America Antigua.  Madrid:
Editorial Equipo Sirius, 1994. ISBN 968-823-238-6 
(= Coleccion la ciencia y la tecnologia en la historia)

Turner, Anthony J.: Of time and measurement. Studies in the history of
horology and fine technology. Aldershot: Variorum, 1994. Pp. 336, ISBN
0-86078-378-2, GBP 55.00 (Hardback). (= Collected Studies Series, CS407) 
[on clocks, watches, sun-dials, mathematical instruments, the reflecting
telescope etc. in antiquity and in England and France]

van Gent, R.H.: De hemel in de hand. Twee astrolaben van het Museum
Boerhaave/The portable universe. Two astrolabes of the Museum Boerhaave.
Leiden: Museum Boerhaave, 1994.

Wallerstein, George; Noriaga-Crespo, Alberto (Eds.): Stellar and
circumstellar astrophysics.  Proceedings of a conference held at the
University of Washington, 9-11 September 1993, in honor of the 70th
birthdays of Karl-Heinz Bohm and Erika Bohm-Vitense. San Francisco, Ca.:
Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1994.  Pp. xiii, 215, 
ISBN 0-937707-76-7 
(= Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, Vol. 57)
[contains also: G.H.Herbig: The contributions of the Boehms to stellar and
circumstellar astrophysics; H.C.Harris: Astronomy graduates during the
Boehm years: achievements in a competitive job market]


Expressions of thanks
----------- ---------

For information we would like to express thanks to: 

M.Blyzinsky (London), P.Brosche (Daun), K.-D.Herbst (Jena), G.Jasniewicz
(Strasbourg), E.Lamla (Bonn), R.A.McCutcheon (USA), A.Spalinger (Los
Angeles), W.Schroeder (Bremen), M.Strohbusch (Potsdam), G.Wolfschmidt



Electronic Newsletter for the History of Astronomy (ENHA)

Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy in the
Astronomische Gesellschaft

A translation of "Elektronische Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte"

Editor: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick <>

Translated by: Mr. Donald Bellunduno <>

All news which is not mentioned by name are editorial contributions.
Articles as well as information for the several sections will be gladly

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Addendum by the translator: 

New astronomical books in review in North America

by David H. Levy
Cambridge University Press, Great Britain  1993
ISBN 0 521 45958 3 paperback
Clifton Fadiman, General Editor, Bruce L. Felknor and Robert McHenry,
Contributing Editors 
Viking Penquin, New York  1992
AC5.T74  1992  031--dc20  92-54069
ISBN 0 670 83568 4
by John Archibald Wheeler
published by American Institute of Physics 1994
Q158.5.W44  1992  500--dc20
ISBN 0-88318-862-7
by Michael White and John Gribbin
published by Dutton (Penquin Books)
QC16.E5W47  1994  530'.092--dc20  [B]  93-42626  CIP
ISBN 0-525-93750-1
Quoting from Levy's The Sky - A User's Guide, 9 Jupiter--  "Late one
evening during the summer of 1964, I was attempting to observe Jupiter
through a 20 cm reflector. The giant planet was rising, ant it had just
cleared my neighbor's house -- not a appropriate viewing time, since
hot air rising from the roof would make Jupiter's appearance unsharp.
This would be a quick look before bed.
"In any event, the shimmering planet caught my attention more than I
had expected, for it was a minute or so before I noticed a police car
parked in front of the house. Two officers emerged and started walking
toward me. From their almost military gait, I assumed that this would
be an official visit. They quickly reached the telescope, and then
halted. I looked at them; they looked at me.
"One officer broke the silence; Excuse me, sir, would you mind if a
couple of nosy policemen looked at Jupiter?'
"The brief look those men had that night showed an object that would
have astonished ancient observers, and confirmed their view that it was
king of planets. Its symbol represents a modified Z standing for Zeus.
Jupiter leads our discussion of planets because it usually is the
easiest to find and the richest to observe. The other planets are
arranged here in the order of how easy each one is to find and begin to
observe, easiest to hardest.
9.1 Jupiter and its moons--  "When Galileo first noticed the movements
of three, and then four, objects near Jupiter, he realized that they
had to be moons that orbit Jupiter in much the same way our own Moon
orbits us. He was thrilled by these delicate movements and announced
then enthusiastically. It was years later that these and other
discoveries led the Roman Catholic Church to force him to recant, to
deny the discoveries and their implications. The Earth must remain
safely at the center of things.
"The names of Galileo's moons are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto,
and with much fainter Amalthea, found by Barnard in 1892, these are the
only moons to have been discovered visually. The Voyager spacecrafts
found exciting worlds -- active volcanoes on Io, a smooth covering of
ice on Europa, the craters and complex grooves of Ganymede, and heavily
cratered Callisto.
"Why not recall Galileo's work by recording the positions of the
Galilean moons for a month or so? Such a project has no scientific
value, of course, and you can even check your own identifications with
the charts in Sky & Telescope [, the Astronomical Almanac,] or the
Royal Astronomical Society of Canada's Observer's Handbook. But just
this once, forget these printed charts and try to figure out which moon
is which. Io will appear to move the most quickly, completing on orbit
in just 1.77 days. After you have finished your 30-day moonwatch you
can check one of the sources to see how well you did. If you have a
primarily mathematical interest in observing, this observing project
will acquaint you with the subject of orbital mechanics. If your interest 
is at all romantic, you will have just made four lifelong friends.
9.2  Seeing--  "Learning to see detail on a distant planet is really an
art form, as William Herschel wrote over 200 years ago:
    Seeing is in some respects an art which must be learnt. To make a
    person see with such power is nearly the same as if I were asked to
    make him play one of Handel's fugues upon the organ. Many a night
    have I been practicing to see, and it would be strange if one did
    not acquire a certain dexterity by such constant practice.
"To see any real detail even on this largest of planets, you need a
least a good 10 cm refractor or a 15 cm reflector telescope. Smaller
telescopes will show some detail, but not really enough to record.
Remember also that good planetary observation requires that Earth's
atmosphere be steady. Observing the details of planets require a sharp
eye that can pick up details at the very limit of visibility, like
reading the words on distant road signs.
"Seeing is a measure of the steadiness of the image of an object in the
sky. If out atmosphere is unsteady, it will be impossible to detect
these hard-to-see details. It is related to, though not the same as,
scintillation, the rapid brightness changes we see in the twinkling of
stars. Sometimes poor seeing results from turbulence in the upper
atmosphere, and on other nights the problem may lie in the atmosphere
just above you. On one night I was observing from a site high in some
mountains. Although it was very windy, the seeing was good and
planetary details were sharp and clear. Then I returned home and
started observing again from my own site. The wind was gone and the
session was much more comfortable, but the seeing had completely
deteriorated! Probably I was trying to observe through that wind raging
not far above me.
"I have found that a hazy night usually is a still night with good
'seeing' for planets. Does this mean that the murky skies over cities
on humid nights may be ideal for good planetary observation? Quite
possibly; if the murk is swamping everything fainter than the planets
and the brightest stars, and if there are no strong upper-atmosphere
winds, you might take advantage of a fine night for planetary observation.
"Observers in Europe favor a scale developed by the planetary observer
Eugenios Antiniadi (1870-1944), who devised a five-point system where
'I' represents a perfectly steady image, 'II' involves excellent
moments lasting for several seconds, 'III' refers to average seeing
where a good image is frequently interrupted by fuzz periods, 'IV'
involves almost constant 'fuzzing out' of the image, and 'V' is so bad
that planetary detail is not really visible at all....".
The subtitle of The Treasury Of The Encyclopedia Brittanica;
Celebrating 225 Years Of The Human Mind At Its Best is not a bad
description of this volume, which, by its very nature is hard to
review. The Treasury Of The Encyclopedia Brittanica is a collection of
some of the gems of unsurpassed eloquence, erudition, and entertainment
from the Brittanica's fifteen editions.
T. E. Lawrence on Guerrilla Warfare - For the editor of the 14th
edition (1929) it must have been a small triumph to persuade Lawrence
of Arabia (18881935) to write the article "Guerrilla Warfare." He was
one of the few Brittanica writers who was also a legend. His
contribution (given in full) as as dashing as he was. The current
edition contains an excellent treatment by Stanley Weintraub of this
bafflingly complex archaeologist-warrior-writer.
Carl Sagan on Life, Terrestrial and Otherwise - Carl Sagan (1934   ) is
one of a small group of distinguished American scientists able to
communicate with the general public. Some readers may recall with
pleasure the remarkable television series Cosmos (1980) which he
narrated and co-produced. His book of the same title is the
best-selling science volume of all time [with the possible exception of
Hawking's A Brief History of Time]. Since 1968 he has been Director of
the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University, where he is
the David Duncan Professor of Astronomy. Among his main publications
three have won wide popular audiences: The Dragons of Venice (1977),
Broca's Brain (1979). and Contact (1985). He is particularly interested
in the possibilities of intelligent extraterrestrial life forms. His
magisterial seventeen-page article on Life first appeared in the 1984
issue of the present 15th edition. From it we have excerpted the
introduction and part of the concluding section, which deal
respectively with definitions of life and with extraterrestrial life.
George Bernard Shaw on Socialism - This forceful, almost hortatory
essay appeared in the 13th edition (1926) and was so highly regarded
that it was carried over into the 14th (1929). The article is nearly as
interesting read between the lines, for there much is suggested about
the general state of the world in the 1920's. Shaw, by the way, was
proud to point out that in his youth he had read the 9th edition in its
entirety, excepting only the scientific articles. (R. McH.) We
reproduce the whole of this piece by George Bernard Shaw (18561950) for
two reasons. First, it is a superb piece of writing. Second, in view of
socialism's contemporary disarray, it is alive with accidental irony
Shaw could not possibly have foreseen.
Bertrand Russell on The Philosophical Consequences of Relativity - Not
many scientists can write lucidly for the lay reader about such matters
as the theory of relativity. On who could was the philosopher-
logician-mathematician Bertrand Russell, 3rd Earl Russell. In his long
virtually hyperactive life Lord Russell spread scientific understanding
as well as philosophical inquiry and reflection, atheism, pacifism, and
left-wing socialist activism. His Britannica article on The
Philosophical Consequences of Relativity (13th edition, 1926) clarified
the Space-time concept. It was written while he was completing a
popular book, The ABC of Relativity. (B.L.F.)
Today we are all Einsteinians. Our view of the cosmos and to a degree
man's place in it is as unconsciously colored and conditioned by
relativity as that of our not-too-remote ancestors was by Newtonian
theory. It's interesting therefore to note how a first-class mind
viewed the philosophical rather than the scientific consequences of
relativity almost three-quarters of a century ago. Particularly
pertinent, in view of our era's love affair with technology, is the
last paragraph. In the current Britannica the account of the
mathematician, philosopher, and publicist Bertrand Russell extends over
five columns, just as his life (18721970) extended over almost a
century. The reader is referred to it. Among Russell's voluminous
productions we call attention to what may oddly enough in the end turn
out to be his masterpiece, his three-volume Autobiography.
Less than four years after the November 24, 1859, publication of The
Origin of Species, Charles Darwin (1863) wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker,
"It is mere rubbish, thinking at present of the origin of life; one
might as well think of the origin of matter." Today, thanks not least
to Darwin himself, we possess an attractive and actively investigated
scenario for the origin of life. Will we ever know anything about the
still deeper issue, what is the origin of matter?
Leibniz put it in his famous words, "Why is there something rather than
nothing?" William James, translated the "why" to the more meaningful
"how": "How comes the world to be here...?"
We ask today. "How did the universe come into being?" realizing full
well that how properly to ask the question is also a part of the
question. On can even believe that one can only then state the issue in
the right words when one knows the answer. Or is there an answer? Is
the mystery of genesis forever beyond explanation?
The investigator of today is not content to let a major question remain
forever in the air, the football of endless indecisive games. Either it
can be ruled out or it must be answered: that is his credo. Something
may rule out the question as meaningless, as quantum mechanics rules
out any possibility to find out simultaneous values for the position
and momentum of an electron. Or something may establish the issue to be
undecidable, as Gdel has proved certain propositions to be
undecidable.  But in the absence, as here, of some clear indication
that the question is meaningless or undecidable, the question must be
faced ant the relevant evidence sought out.
Wheeler's At Home In The Universe presents a feast of engaging essays
formed of reminiscence, science, and sometimes conjecture, providing
intimate glimpses of Einstein, Bohr, and other giants in the field who
were his friends and collaborators. He writes of debate and discussions
with Bohr that formed the cornerstone of nuclear fission theory, long
talks with Einstein in his upstairs study at Princeton, and the
eloquence and nobility of Hermann Weyl. He sees in these and other
great physicists--Marie Curie, Hideki Yukawa, and Hendrik Anthony
Kramers--exemplars of the scientific spirit.
The date was Thursday 6 November 1919; the occasion, a joint meeting of
the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society in the main hall
of Burlington House, London. An air of excitement and expectancy
permeated the Georgian spledour of the room. The scientists who had
packed into the hall fell silent as the president of the Royal Society,
J. J.  Thompson, rose to address the meeting. For a moment he paused
and glanced up at the portrait of Isaac Newton hanging high above the
gathering. The meeting had been called to make the announcement the
scientific world had been waiting for -- the findings of Arthur
Eddington, recently returned from observation of the solar eclipse at
Principe, west Africa. The evidence supported a scientific theory which
would alter human perception as dramatically as had Newton's
breakthroughs two and a half centuries earlier.
Within twenty-four hours of the announcement, Albert Einstein's theory
would become public property, his work described in newspapers around
the world and his Berlin home besieged by journalists.
In Burlington House the mood, as described by a member of the audience,
the philosopher Alfred Whitehead, was "that of a Greek drama". The
gathered scientists were fully aware of the historic importance of the
occasion. First J. J. Thompson announced the purpose of the meeting and
reiterated the importance of relativity in modern physics, declaring
that Einstein's theory of relativity was "the greatest discovery in
connection with gravitation since Newton". Next to take the podium was
the Astronomer Royal, Sir Frank Dyson. To a hushed gathering he made
the announcement verifying Einstein's theory--that the bending of light
by the gravitational field of the Sun observed during the recent solar
eclipse did not tally with Newton's theory but coincided almost exactly
with Einstein's predicted value.
At the end of the 1980's, a satellite known as COBE (Cosmic Background
Explorer) was launched by NASA to study the background radiation with
more precision than ever before. In 1992, the NASA team announced that
they had discovered exactly the kinds of ripples in time that the
theory had predicted. It was headline news around the world--the
combination of Einstein's general theory, the Big Bang model, and the
added ingredient of dark matter, had been vindicated. This was, and
is, the most compelling evidence ever that the universe we live in is
described by the equations of Albert Einstein.
In White and Gribbin's Einstein, we learn of Einstein's possible
schizophrenia early in life, his two marriages, his friendships with
such figures as Franz Kafka and Bertrand Russell, and the search for
security and sanctuary that led him from one country to another in
Europe, and then from Nazi Germany to his tenure as a "scientific
saint" in America. White portrays Einstein as a man brimming with
paradoxes--a pacifist who advocated the creation of an atomic weapons
program, a man who hated regimentation but who was beguiled by the
strict beauty of mathematics, an atheist and a dedicated Zionist, a
figure revered by the world yet kept under surveillance by the FBI.

Space Anniversaries (from the SPACE CALENDAR)

(Additions to the list in ENHA No. 6)

                               SPACE CALENDAR
                              November 2, 1994

December 1994
  Dec 24 - 15th Anniversary (1979), 1st Ariane Launch

August 1995
  Aug 10 - 5th Anniversary (1990), Magellan Venus Orbit Insertion
  Aug 20 - 20th Anniversary (1975), Viking 1 Launch (Mars Lander/Orbiter)
  Aug 21 - 30th Anniversary (1965), Gemini 5 Launch

      ___    _____     ___
     /_ /|  /____/ \  /_ /|     Ron Baalke     |
     | | | |  __ \ /| | | |     JPL/Telos      | 
  ___| | | | |__) |/  | | |__   Galileo S-Band | If you don't know where you're
 /___| | | |  ___/    | |/__ /| Pasadena, CA   | going, you'll end up somewhere
 |_____|/  |_|/       |_____|/                 | else.   Yogi Berra.