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ENHA-36

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*                                                                         *
*           ELECTRONIC NEWSLETTER FOR THE HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY            *
*                                                                         *
*      Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy        *
*                  in the Astronomische Gesellschaft                      *
*                                                                         *
*                       Number 36,  May 5, 1999                           *
*                                                                         *
*                     Edited by: Wolfgang R. Dick                         *
*                                                                         *
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Contents
--------

1. Gerhard Scholz: The Great Refractor on the Telegrafenberg -
      100 years old

2. Michael J. Crowe: History of Astronomy Meetings at Notre Dame

3. Joseph S. Tenn: History of Astronomy Meeting in Toronto

4. Symposium announcement: Scientific Instruments: Originals and Imitations

5. Symposium announcement: Portraiture and Scientific Identity 

6. Conferences 1999/2000

Erratum: ENHA 12, Item 9 (New Books)

Acknowledgements

Imprint

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Item 1                                             ENHA No. 36, May 5, 1999
...........................................................................

The Great Refractor on the Telegrafenberg - 100 years old
---------------------------------------------------------

By Gerhard Scholz, Potsdam


Foundation and scientific purposes

One of the most renowned scientific achievements in the first years of
the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam was the introduction, encouraged
by the first Director, H.C. Vogel, of the photographic plate for the
determination of radial velocities of stars. Observations in those days
were carried out with a 30-cm refractor, which rather limited the
application to bright stars; in order to include fainter stars in this
prestigious programme, more powerful telescopes were required.

The idea to construct what in those days was considered to be a huge
astronomical telescope had already been discussed shortly after the
founding of the Observatory in 1874. In 1889 a double refractor, with
apertures of 32.5 and 23.5 cm and a focal length of 3.4 m, had just been
mounted in the "Photokuppel" (Photo-dome) to the west of the main
Observatory building; it was used mainly for cartography of northern-
hemisphere stars as part of the Observatory's contribution towards
the Carte du Ciel which had been planned by the Paris congress of
astronomers in 1887. Although this instrument was very practical and
successful for taking photographic records of star fields, it was too
small to take over the spectroscopic observations of radial velocities.

Plans for a new and larger double refractor had been proposed by Vogel in
1890. The preference for a refractor rather than a reflector was due to
the relatively primitive technology of the latter at that time, whereas
the necessary technical experiments with large lenses could be carried out
in the Observatory's own laboratories. The dimensions of the lenses were
carefully calculated according to the laboratory tests of the properties
of the different kinds of glass.

The large telescope, called the Great Refractor, was completed just before 
the turn of the century, and was inaugurated in the presence of Emperor 
Wilhelm II on August 26, 1899.


Architecture

The buildings of the Observatory, founded 25 years previously, already
comprised a main building with three domes, the Photo-dome, a Director's
private house, three houses for observers, and a machine shop. The dome
of the Great Refractor was added in a manner that preserved the harmony
and uniform style of the architecture originally created by the Court
Councillor P. Spieker. The whole ensemble, including the building and the
instrument, are now officially protected monuments. The erection of the
building for the Great Refractor was accompanied by that of two more
houses, (i) the Beamtenwohnhaus for the castle warden, the telescope
mechanic and other auxiliary staff and guests of the Observatory, and
(ii) the engine house for a gas-driven generator.


Dome, mechanical details, mounting

The mechanical parts of the telescope, in particular the German mounting,
were constructed in Hamburg by Repsold & Soehne and installed in a dome
having an inner diameter of 21 m and a height of 18 m. The moving parts of
the telescope weighed 7 tons. The dome, whose total weight was 200 tons,
was manufactured by Bretschneider & Kruegner in Pankow. The moving
mechanism of the dome and the observer's lift, which is technically unique,
were made in Berlin by Hoppe. The electrical work, including the driving
motors, was carried out by Siemens & Halske.


Optical equipment

The Great Refractor has two objectives:
 
  objective diameter  focal length  wavelength of correction
1.    80 cm       12.2 m       425 nm
2.    50 cm       12.5 m       600 nm 

Both objectives are doublets of crown and flint glass, and were made by 
the optics firm Steinheil (Munich). The blocks of raw optical glass 
were supplied by Schott (Jena). 

With its diameter of 80 cm for the larger objective, the Great Refractor
is the world's fourth largest, whereas its colour correction optimized for 
photographic plates is unique. The tube of the 50 cm objective, fixed 
parallel to that of the main tube and corrected for the visual colour 
range, was initially used as a guiding telescope. The two objectives 
possessed different qualities:
1. The 80 cm objective revealed zonal chromatic errors and an irregular 
astigmatism which could not be removed even after several retouches. After 
the final retouch in 1942 the quality of the lens was considered good, 
and useable for many observational projects.
2. The 50 cm objective was rather good from the start, and has been 
improved even further by re-touches carried out personally (in 1911 and 
1914) by the famous optician Bernhard Schmidt, making it one of the best 
(and most valuable) refractor objectives of this size in the world. 


Research 

When the 80 cm lens was first brought into service, its condition required
the invention of methods for testing astronomical optics. Several methods
of them, such as the Hartmann test, are still in use today. The
astronomical observations concentrated especially on spectroscopy of close
binaries. From these observations the existence of interstellar matter
could be inferred. Unfortunately, the efficiency of the spectroscopic
observations made with that telescope was affected by the length of the
tube and by size and weight of the spectrograph which the telescope could
carry. So, the use for the investigation of spectroscopic binaries was
quite limited. However, for observations of visual double stars the long
focal length of the telescope proved to be an asset, thus making it
particularly suitable for the absolute determination of stellar masses. In
1968 the scientific profile of the institute was changed and the
observations were stopped.


Preservation

In order to save the Great Refractor in Potsdam as an important scientific
monument of the astronomical history and taking its 100th birthday as an
occasion, a reconstruction of the instrument has just going on. The
government of Brandenburg, the Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, and
the "Foerderverein Grosser Refraktor Potsdam e.V." support this task.


Author's address:
Dr. Gerhard Scholz
Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam
Sonnenobservatorium Einsteinturm
Telegrafenberg A31
D 14473 Potsdam
Germany
Tel.: +49-331-288-2309, Fax: +49-331-288-2310
E-Mail: GScholz@aip.de

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Item 2                                             ENHA No. 36, May 5, 1999
...........................................................................

History of Astronomy Meetings at Notre Dame
-------------------------------------------

By Michael J. Crowe, Notre Dame, IN


All persons attending the Fourth Biennial History of Astronomy Workshop to
be held at the University of Notre Dame on July 1 to July 4, 1999 (cf.
ENHA No. 31, Item 2) are invited to participate in a free one-day
conference at Notre Dame on July 1 (9am to 5:15pm) entitled: "Perspectives
on the Question of Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life." The presentations
in this short conference should be of interest to many historians of
astronomy.

For more information, including the program for this mini-conference, see
http://www.nd.edu/~histast4/minicon.html

For those wishing to arrive one day early so as to attend this one-day
conference, the same low cost housing as for the History of Astronomy
Conference will be available.  We will also be able to provide free
transportation from the South Bend Airport for those wishing this.


The program for the History of Astronomy Workshop is now available. It
features ca. 50 presentations, including some by internationally prominent
historians of astronomy. Ten speakers are coming from abroad.

To see the program and to secure other information about the workshop and
to register, see the workshop website: http://www.nd.edu/~histast4

The program itself can be seen at 
http://www.nd.edu/~histast4/schedule.html


Author's address:
Professor Michael J. Crowe
Program of Liberal Studies
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA
Phone: 219-631-6212
E-mail: Michael.J.Crowe.1@nd.edu

...........................................................................
Item 3                                             ENHA No. 36, May 5, 1999
...........................................................................

History of Astronomy Meeting in Toronto
---------------------------------------

By Joseph S. Tenn, Rohnert Park, CA, USA


The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) will hold its "111th Annual
Meeting" jointly with the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) and
the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) in Toronto,
Canada on 1-7 July 1999. Three history sessions will be presented by the
ASP history committee:

I. Amateur Contributions to Astronomy - Invited lectures for the general
public: Sunday morning, 4 July.

II. General History of Astronomy - invited lectures for the general public:
Sunday afternoon, 4 July.

III. General History of Astronomy - contributed papers for those
particularly interested in the history of astronomy: Monday, 5 July.

The programs for sessions I and II are available at

http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/people/faculty/tenn/ASPHistory/
1999long.html

along with the papers contributed to date for session III.

Both oral and poster papers are solicited for the third session. Poster
papers will be displayed Sunday as well as Monday.

***DEADLINE FOR RECEIPT OF TITLES AND ABSTRACTS IS 14 MAY 1999***

The nonhistory portions of the meeting, other than the weekend, will
consist mostly of lectures of interest to amateur astronomers. The weekend
sessions are for the interested public and will include many talks on
current developments in astronomy as well as on history. There will be a
tour of the historic David Dunlap Observatory Monday evening.

For further information regarding the overall ASP-RASC-AAVSO meeting see

http://www.aspsky.org/subpages/mtng.html

The ASP History Committee and sessions at this and previous meetings may
be found at

http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/people/faculty/tenn/ASPHistory/

If you wish to contribute a paper, please contact the author.


Author's address:
Joseph S. Tenn, Chair, ASP History Committee
Dept. of Physics & Astronomy
Sonoma State University
Rohnert Park, CA 94928-3609
USA
e-mail: joe.tenn@sonoma.edu
Phone: +1 707 664-2594, fax: +1 707 664-2505
URL: http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/people/faculty/tenn/

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Item 4                                             ENHA No. 36, May 5, 1999
...........................................................................

Symposium announcement
----------------------

(From: "Elektronische Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte" Nr. 40,
30. April 1999, Item 1.)


Scientific Instruments: Originals and Imitations. The Mensing Connection

Museum Boerhaave, Leiden, The Netherlands
October 15-16, 1999

This symposium is part of the Anton Mensing Scientific Instrument Project,
a joint venture of the Museum Boerhaave, Leiden, the Nederlands
Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam, the Utrecht University Museum and the Adler
Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago. It aims to trace, catalogue and
research the instruments owned by Anton W.M. Mensing (1866-1936), director
and owner of Frederik Muller & Co., auctioneers in Amsterdam. Ever since
they were dispersed, there have been doubts on the authenticity of a
section of the Mensing instruments; indeed, several have been proved to be
forgeries. The symposium will address the problem of authenticity and
historic scientific instruments.

Programme Details

     Friday   15 October

10.00-10.45   Introductions
              P.R. de Clercq, London, United Kingdom
              W.F.J. Morzer Bruyns, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

10.45-11.30   Paris, Amsterdam, London: the Collecting, Trade and
              Display of Early Scientific Instruments, 1830-1930
              A.J.Turner, Le Mesnil-le-Roi, France

11.30-12.00   Coffee

12.00-12.45   Recognizing Imitation Instruments
              G.L'E. Turner, Oxford, United Kingdom

12.45-14.30   Lunch

14.30-15.15   Why Make Fakes?
              O. Gingerich, Harvard Smithsonian , USA

15.15-16.00   Twenty Years of Scientific Instruments at Auction
              J. Collins, London, United Kingdom

16.00-16.30   Scientific and Technical Examination of Metal Objects
              P. Hallebeek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

              Reception

   Saturday   16 October

10.00-10.45   A Chapter in Silver Faking: the Feeterse Clan
              K.A. Citroen, Aerdenhout, The Netherlands

10.45-11.30   Fakes among the Mensing Instruments
              J.C. Deiman, Utrecht, The Netherlands

11.30-12.00   Coffee

12.00-12.30   The Tale of a Forger of Scientific Instruments
              written by S.A. Bedini, Washington D.C., USA,
              and read by A.J. Turner

12.30-13.00   Replicating Instruments: Some Practical Aspects
              M. Brunold, Abtwil, Switserland

13.00-14.00   Lunch

14.00-15.30   Examination of imitation instruments

15.30-17.00   Final discussion
              Chair: R.G.W. Anderson, London, United Kingdom

The registration fee is f 200 (approximately $95), and includes lunches and
drinks as well as a copy of the proceedings, which will be edited by Peter
de Clercq and published in the series of Museum Boerhaave Communications.

For further details and registration, contact the local organizer:

  Agnes Rappard
  Museum Boerhaave
  Postbox 11280
  2301 EG Leiden
  The Netherlands

  tel. +31 (0)71 5214 224 extension 602
  fax  +31 (0)71 5120 344


[Source: http://www.sic.iuhps.org/mtle1999/ . Reprinted with permission.]

...........................................................................
Item 5                                             ENHA No. 36, May 5, 1999
...........................................................................

Symposium announcement
----------------------

(From: "Elektronische Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte" Nr. 40,
30. April 1999, Item 2.)


Portraiture and Scientific Identity

National Portrait Gallery, London
23-24 June 2000

Announcement and Call for Papers (and Portraits)

This conference is being organised by the National Portrait Gallery 
and the British Society for the History of Science. 

The likely pattern of conference will be four plenary sessions and a number
of shorter sessions with papers of 25 minutes. Professor Ludmilla
Jordanova is responsible for the programme, and offers of short papers can
be made to her at any time between now and 1 November 1999. This should
take the form of a brief abstract of no more than one page, together with
any supporting material thought appropriate, for example, a list of items
already published on the topic.

The final programme will be drawn up by Christmas 1999 and it will be
circulated in the new year. A copy of the final programme can be sent to
those who provide the Education Department of the National Portrait Gallery
(St Martin's Place, London, WC2H 0HE) with a stamped addressed envelop
marked 'BSHS conference'.

The meeting is being held in association with a small exhibition at the
National Portrait Gallery, which will explore portraiture in relation to
practitioners of science, medicine and technology since the seventeenth
century in Britain. The exhibition will open in late March or early April
and will close at the end of June 2000. It will contain works in all
media, and suggestions of unusual, visually interesting items that might be
included can be made to Professor Jordanova, who would be particularly
interested to hear of relevant self-portraits and of portraits made within
domestic settings. The practice of portraiture is one of the main themes
of the exhibition, so preparatory sketches are of particular relevance.

Professor Ludmilla Jordanova can be contacted at School of World Art
Studies and Museology, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4
7TJ, e-mail: l.jordanova@uea.ac.uk

The BSHS website is at:

http://www.man.ac.uk/Science_Engineering/CHSTM/bshs/


[Provided by Jon Agar]

...........................................................................
Item 6                                             ENHA No. 36, May 5, 1999
...........................................................................

Conferences 1999/2000
---------------------

(From: "Elektronische Mitteilungen zur Astronomiegeschichte" Nr. 39,
8. April 1999, Item 7.)


Further conferences in the years 1999 and 2000 were reported in previous
issues of ENHA. For a complete list of all conferences announced see the
following URL:

http://www.astro.uni-bonn.de/~pbrosche/hist_astr/ha_meet.html


April 16-18, 1999, Brussels, Belgium
Reflections on XXth Century Sciences
International Symposium held by the Academie Royale des Sciences,
des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Fondation Ochs-Lefebvre.
Eminent scientists will reflect on great advances in scientific knowledge
in this century and will endeavour to relate the major achievements to one
another across the specialization barriers.
Reserved to professional scientists. Since attendance will be strictly
limited to 220 participants, early registration is strongly recommended.
Among the areas covered: Astrophysics and Cosmology
Further information: Isabelle Schievekamp, Physics Dept., FUNDP,
Tel.: +32 81 72 47 16, Fax: +32 81 72 47 07, e-mail: ochs@fundp.ac.be
URL: http://www.scf.fundp.ac.be/~ischieve/ochs/

July 18-30, 1999, Birmingham, UK
22nd General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
International Association for Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Symposia:
GA 6.01 Long and Short Term Variability in Sun's History and Global Change
Papers should consider the historical records of long and short term solar
variability.
Lead Convener: Dr. Wilfried Schroeder, Hechelstrasse 8,
D-28777 Bremen-Roennebeck, Germany.
GA 6.02 400 Years of Geomagnetism
The aim of this symposium is to commemorate the 400 years of "The Magnete"
of William Gilbert.
Lead Convenor: A. Orozco, Instituto de Geofisica UNAM, Circuito Exterior,
Ciudad Universitaria Mexico, 20 DF CP 04510, Mexico, fax: 52 5 550 2486,
e-mail: adolfo@tonatiuh.igeofcu.unam.mx
URL: http://www.bham.ac.uk/IUGG99/ich.htm
See also:
http://weber.u.washington.edu/~hssexec/meetings/hss_meetings_iaga.html

September 10-12, 1999, Cambridge, UK
Women in the History of Science: biography, autobiography, tasks, results,
problems. 
Open Conference/Workshop held by the Women's Commission of the DHS/IUHPS.
Place: Newnham College
To join the email list to receive further information, write to
jm148@cam.ac.uk .
URL: http://www.cilea.it/history/DHS/womenDHS.htm

September 18-19, 1999, Oxford, UK
Medieval Mathematics
Place: Kellogg College, Oxford
Further Information: Raymond Flood (e-mail: raymond.flood@conted.ox.ac.uk)
and Eleanor Robson (e-mail: eleanor.robson@wolfson.ox.ac.uk)

March 2000, Munich, Germany
History of Geophysics and Space Physics.
One day session during the Annual Meeting of the German Geophysical
Society.
Further information: Dr. Wilfried Schroeder, Hechelstrasse 8,
D-28777 Bremen-Roennebeck, Germany.
Announcement: http://weber.u.washington.edu/~hssexec/meetings/
hss_meetings_geophysics2.html

April 10 - 12, 2000, Leeds, UK
Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical - an interdisciplinary
Conference
Place: University of Leeds 
Deadlines: 1 June 1999 
Further Information: Dr. J. R. Topham, School of Philosophy,
University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK, e-mail: j.r.topham@leeds.ac.uk (no file
attachments please), tel: 0114-2228484 or 0113-2333280,
fax: 0114-2228481 or 0113-2333265
Announcement: http://weber.u.washington.edu/~hssexec/meetings/19thcper.html

...........................................................................

Erratum: ENHA 12, Item 9 (New Books)
------------------------------------

In ENHA No. 12, November 17, 1995, Item 9 (New Books), the author of a book
was omitted by mistake. The entry should read correctly:

DeVorkin, David H.: Science with a vengeance: How the military created the
US space sciences after World War II. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993.
Pp. xxii, 404, ISBN 0-387-94137-1, $ 39.95 (pb)
[paperbound edition of 1992 hardcover]

...........................................................................

Acknowledgements
----------------

For information we thank all authors and in addition Jon Agar and Peter
de Clercq.

...........................................................................

Imprint
-------

Electronic Newsletter for the History of Astronomy (ENHA)

Published by the Working Group for the History of Astronomy in the
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Editor: Dr. Wolfgang R. Dick <wdi@potsdam.ifag.de>

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